Use of Space

A team attempts to achieve its tactical objectives through the use of space.

Tactical Dynamics

Tactical dynamics are the fundamental concepts that underlie how space can be used by a team.

Primary Tactical Dynamics

The primary tactical dynamics are the three distinct tactical dynamics that all other tactical dynamics are derived from. They are tactical shape, which relates to the positioning of a team's players, player movement, which relates to the movement of a team's players, and ball movement, which relates to the movement of the ball by a team's players.

Attacking Dynamics

Attacking dynamics are tactical dynamics that underlie how space can be used by a team in the attacking phases.

The main attacking dynamics are:

Defensive Dynamics

Defensive dynamics are tactical dynamics that underlie how space can be used by a team in the defensive phases.

The main defensive dynamics are:

Playing Positions

A player's playing position is his initial reference point for positioning himself relative to his teammates.

The main playing positions that can be used by a team are:

Playing Methods

Playing methods are the specific means of using space and techniques for using space that can be utilised by a team. They therefore enable a team to apply the tactical dynamics.

Attacking methods are the playing methods that a team can utilise in the attacking phases and defensive methods are the playing methods that a team can utilise in the defensive phases.

Tactical Risk Levels

Different playing methods carry different levels of tactical risk.

Application of Attacking Dynamics

Attacking methods enable a team to apply the attacking dynamics.

Each attacking dynamic can be applied in different ways by different attacking methods. Each attacking method can be used to varying extents, both in terms of its overall use by a team as a whole and its relative use by individual players.

Application of Defensive Dynamics

Defensive methods enable a team to apply the defensive dynamics.

Each defensive dynamic can be applied in different ways by different defensive methods. Each defensive method can be used to varying extents, both in terms of its overall use by a team as a whole and, with the exception of offside line movement defensive methods, its relative use by individual players.

Player Types

Different players perform different playing methods to different levels and they also perform in different ways. It is therefore important to analyse a player's type.

A player's type is best described by his abilities and traits.

Player Abilities

A player's abilities are the skills that he has that determine how well he is able to perform different playing methods. They can be categorised into technical, mental and physical abilities.

Player Traits

A player's traits are his personal preferences regarding the use of playing methods.

Player Suitability

Player suitability refers to how suitable a player is for a particular tactic or aspect of a tactic.

A fundamental part of player suitability is playing method suitability, which refers to how suitable a player is for a particular playing method. A player's playing method suitability can be assessed by his abilities and traits. A player can be considered to be suitable for playing method if his abilities enable him to perform the playing method well and if the playing method does not conflict with his traits.

Tactical Balance

A team’s tactical balance refers to the team's management of tactical risk in its application of the tactical dynamics.

It is important for a team to achieve a good tactical balance in order for it to effectively achieve its tactical objectives. A team should therefore balance the levels of tactical risk that are carried by playing methods.

Tactical balance involves playing system balance and playing style balance.

Playing system balance is discussed in the Playing Systems guide and playing style balance is discussed in the Playing Styles guide.